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Kevin Gilbert, ‘Massacre Mountain’ #2013-0437


About the artist

Kevin Gilbert (1933-1993) was born into the Wiradjuri nation at Condobolin. The youngest of eight children, he and his siblings were orphaned at a very young age, which exposed the family to the racism of constant police harassment in country towns. He escaped the orphanages with two of his sisters, returning to Condobolin to their extended family where they lived off the land in a ‘fringe camp’, holding onto Waradjuri language and culture. Married with two children, Gilbert successfully worked his way to being a station manager on a property near Condoblin, but his marriage ended in tragedy. He was found guilty of the murder of his wife, for which he served more than fourteen years in gaol. With limited reading material, and a formal education only to fourth grade, Gilbert read dictionaries from cover to cover and developed an extensive vocabulary. In Long Bay Gaol Gilbert learnt the art of lino-cutting techniques which enabled him to become the first Aboriginal printmaker. He made his own tools ‘from a spoon, fork, gem blades and nails’, carved ‘old brittle lino off the prison floor’ and printed images using the back of a spoon. His artwork was first exhibited in 1970 at the Arts Council Gallery, Sydney, in an exhibition organised by the Australia Council.

Gilbert became the first Aboriginal playwright when ‘The Cherry Pickers’ was published in 1968. In 2001 ‘The Cherry Pickers’, directed by Wesley Enoch, toured to the Commonwealth Games Cultural Festival in Manchester 2002. In 1971, Gilbert joined the Gurindji Lands Rights campaign and was instrumental in establishing the Aboriginal Tent Embassy opposite Parliament House in Canberra in 1972. He crystallised central issues of the Aboriginal political struggle in his book ‘Because a White Man’ll Never Do It’. He exposed the reality of surviving genocide in the oral history ‘Living Black’, a collection of Aboriginal people’s stories which won the National Book Council award in 1978. In 1979 he spearheaded the National Aboriginal Government protest on Capital Hill, Canberra, calling for acceptance of, and respect for, Aboriginal sovereignty. In 1981 he moved to the bush on the Queanbeyan River and co-ordinated the Treaty ‘88 campaign. He defined a legal argument for justice in ‘Aboriginal Sovereignty, Justice, the Law and Land (including Draft Treaty)’ and completed the books ‘Inside Black Australia’, ‘The Cherry Pickers’, and ‘Child’s Dreaming’. In 1992 Gilbert was instrumental in re-establishing the Aboriginal Tent Embassy and spent most of the last year of his life located there. He had a profound conviction that the Aboriginal Embassy was the vehicle through which there would be a resolution to the underlying conflict over the opposing sovereignties in Australia. After his death, some of his ashes were spread on one of the Tent Embassy fires.

About the work

The linocut ‘Massacre Mountain’ addresses a subject about which Kevin Gilbert felt passionately. In his book ‘Because a White Man’ll Never Do It’ he wrote: ‘Aboriginal leaders tried to organize their spears against the muskets of the settlers … There are numerous testimonies to the white man’s retaliatory and punitive sabre charges against the tribesmen, women and children … Individual Aboriginal men were killed and their women and children raped, then shot … Consider events such as the Namoi River massacre. The Coniston killings. The Murrumbidgee River wipeout. The black extermination drives of the Hawkesbury and Manning Rivers … These and many, many more were the links in the chain of white inhumanity that lives on in the memories of the southern part-bloods today.’ ‘Massacre Mountain’ is Gilbert’s very emotional response to the Aboriginal killings that he witnessed and heard about: ‘As a child of fourteen, I remember how my guts twisted with bitterness as I dug the skeletons of black women and children out of the sands of the Murrumbidgee and examined the squashed and bullet-riddled skulls’. It speaks of the brutality and lack of rights and democracy experienced by Indigenous Australians.

Show Statement of values
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Statement of values

This work is significant because it was made by one of Australia’s most prominent recent Indigenous artists, Kevin Gilbert, who made a number of well-known and recognisable linocuts. Gilbert has been enormously influential in Aboriginal communities: he was the first Aboriginal print-maker and first published Aboriginal playwright and political writer. He played a leading role in the formation of the Aboriginal Tent Embassy outside Parliament House in Canberra. He used his art as a form of political activism as he was a powerful advocate for Aboriginal rights all his life. The work is particularly significant for its commentary on the effects of white settlement on Aboriginal communities, especially the devastation wrought by indiscriminate killing of Aboriginal communities.

  • Kevin Gilbert, ‘Massacre Mountain’Kevin Gilbert, ‘Massacre Mountain’ —


Width 562mm
Height 386mm
Medium Paper, ink
Creator’s name Kevin Gilbert
Date created 1997